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What is Blockchain?

2023.08.15 MEXC

Blockchain is not only confusing to newcomers in the cryptocurrency world, but many seasoned traders in the cryptocurrency community may also find it challenging to fully understand. However, after reading this article, everyone should be able to quickly grasp the basic facts about blockchain.

1.Blockchain Structure: Blocks and Chains are Inseparable

Firstly, blockchain is a decentralized distributed database system that can permanently store transaction records within blocks. Similar to a ledger, when users record transactions through nodes worldwide, automatic "backups" are generated. These "backups" are what we commonly refer to as "blocks." Each backup represents a block. These blocks are linked together in the form of a "chain." Data on the blockchain continuously grows and can be utilized by blockchain users.

The core features of blockchains include decentralization, anonymity, tamper resistance, unique value, smart contracts, and more, making them a promising digital technology. As early as the early 1980s, the prototype of blockchain technology already existed, and it was used to create the first digital currency, eCash. The continuous improvement of blockchain technology gave birth to new types of digital cryptocurrencies represented by Bitcoin. Since then, cryptocurrency networks have been supported by blockchain technology, achieving decentralization and distribution.

Of course, maintaining and operating the blockchain also requires corresponding mechanisms, which include "nodes" and "irreversibility."

2.Nodes: The Key Elements of Blockchain

At the core of blockchain transactions is peer-to-peer communication. This "peer" refers to a node, and every computer around the world can become a node and participate in the blockchain network. Each independent node maintains a copy of the blockchain, ensuring the functionality and security of the blockchain network. Therefore, nodes are considered a fundamental and critical mechanism that allows the blockchain system to achieve decentralization and censorship resistance.

3.Irreversibility: A Necessary Mechanism of Blockchain

"Irreversibility" primarily means that the data recorded on the blockchain cannot be tampered with. This is achieved through hash functions, which form the core of blockchain's tamper resistance. Each block contains a hash value, calculated by applying a hash function to all the data on the blockchain. Any alteration of data will result in a change in the hash value of that block, thus ensuring the immutability of data on the blockchain.

4.The Advantages of Blockchain

Compared to other networks, the decentralized nature of blockchain significantly enhances network security. Each participant in the network maintains only one copy of the data, and their operations are synchronized in real time. This increases the cost and difficulty for hackers to invade these networks. To successfully attack a blockchain network, hackers must contribute at least 50% of the network's computational power. This is why blockchain is considered one of the most secure databases. One of its main design intentions was to prevent records from being altered. Furthermore, the system is protected by hash encryption, further enhancing its ability to prevent hacker intrusions.

Of course, the scope of blockchain goes beyond just finance. It can be applied in various industries. Utilizing blockchain technology not only ensures data integrity but also enhances efficiency by eliminating manual interventions and reduces costs by eliminating intermediaries.

5.The Disadvantages of Blockchain

Technical Disadvantages: It must be acknowledged that blockchain-related technology is still in the research and development stage, and there is still a long way to go before large-scale implementation and market adoption. Although there are patents, blockchain-related products that truly emerge in the public eye are still relatively scarce. We are currently in the era of Blockchain 2.0, and transitioning to Blockchain 3.0 will require considerable time and effort.

Economic Disadvantages: The economic downside of blockchain is primarily evident in financial speculation. Currently, cryptocurrencies exhibit highly volatile fluctuations, attracting a large number of speculative investors. Furthermore, in order to realize the benefits of blockchain technology, key economic entities in society, such as businesses, need to adopt and invest in it. However, many companies still maintain a wait-and-see approach as they need to verify their return on investment in blockchain.

Legal Disadvantages: The inherent decentralized nature of blockchain makes it difficult for governments to regulate. For instance, in cases where the blockchain system experiences vulnerabilities or hacker intrusions, seeking legal protection from the government becomes challenging.


Many experts believe that blockchain can be developed as a long-term technology, and future societies will benefit greatly from it. At least for now, blockchain has already been widely recognized for its effectiveness in projects where trust in intermediaries is low and costs are high.

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